Düşünce Denizi

Bektaşi Nefesleri- Yunus Emre’den…

İlim İlim bilmektir
İlim kendin bilmektir
Sen kendini bilmezsin
Ya nice okumaktır

Okumaktan murat ne
Kişi Hak’kı bilmektir
Çün okudun bilmezsin
Ha bir kuru emektir

Okudum bildim deme
Çok taat kıldım deme
Eğer hak bilmezisen
Abes yere yelmektir

Dört kitabın manası
Bellidir bir elifte
Sen elifi bilmezsin
Bu nice okumaktır

Yiğirmi dokuz hece
Okursun uçtan uca
Sen elif dersin hoca
Ma’nisi ne demektir

Yunus Emre der hoca
Gerekse bin var hacca
Hepsininden iyice
Bir gönüle girmektir.

30 Mayıs 2007 Posted by | Bektashi- Alevi, Nefesler, Uncategorized | Yorum bırakın

What is Bektasilik (Bektashi Order of Dervishes)? -2

Where to Find The Historical Information

As historical background knowledege about the Bektashi Order of Dervishes if we go back to the history publicity by Hammer, we can find the first written information about the tradition of “first blessing of the Janissary soldiers at their begining by Hadji Bektash Veli (Hacı Bektas Veli).

Then in 1868 in the book The Dervishes or Oriental Spriritualism written by Brown, we can find some of the practices, beliefs and symbols noted, but not criticized.

In 1908 Prof. Jacob wrote Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Dervisch-Ordens der Bektaschis. In which the history and spread of the Bektashis were examined.

In 1909 Prof. Jacob published a new book Die Bektaschijje.

In 1911 F.W. Hasluck, published his articles giving information about the Bektashis, their geographic distribution, their methods of prpaganda and the relation of their sacred places to Cristian sacret places especially in Balkans, Europe. This study is translated into Turkish and published in 1928 under the name “Bektaşilik Tetkikleri”.

By 1918 a Turkish Prof. Dr Fuad Koprulu published his book The First Mystic in Turkish Literature (Türk Edebiyatında İlk Mutasavvıflar). In his book there is a lot of information about Hadji Bektas Veli and Bektashis, regarding traditions and critical study of the historic facts.

In the year 1924 another Turkish Prof. Hilmi Ziya Ülken, published his article in the Turkish magazine Mihrap. In his article he gave knowledge that the study Hadji Bektash Veli having begun in tradition, had passed in the critical stage to an excessive denial of his influence, even of his existence, and that the pendulum was now sfinging back to give a more truly historical picture of the founder of the Bektashi Order. In that article he announced the discovery of a copy of a work dated 812 (1409), throwing possible light not only on Hadji Bektash Veli’s existance but upon his teachings as well.

In 1923 Prof. Fuad Köprülü delivered at the International Congress of the History of Religions in Paris a very important address on the Oringins of Bektasiism. In this he criticised the work heretofore done on the Bektashis, pointing out the necessity of studying the religious history of Anatolia for an understanding of the background of all the dervish orders. He reported new historical evidence discovered since the publishing of his “Early Mystics“, not only establishing more definitely the historical character of Hadji Bektash Veli, but also revealing apparently authentic teachings of the master. Articles published were: Les Origines du Bektashisme, in Eqtrait des Acts du Congres International d’Histoire des Religions, Paris, 1926. in Turkish “Bektaşiliğin Menşeleri in Turk Yurdu magazine no:8 , 1341.

In the meantime, the work of Hasluck about the Bektashis is prepared the as a book and publised in 1929 after his death by his wife, under the name Christianity and Islam under the Sultans.

During the years 1928, 1930 a Turkish Prof. Yusuf Ziya Bey published his work about the rural Bektashi groups-Alevi‘s in the region of Eskişehir, mostly about the group called after the name Tahtacı.

Then comes in Turkish, Bektaşilik ve Edebiyatı (Bektasiism and Bektashi Literature) by Besim Atalay published in 1924, and Ahmet Rıfkı Bektaşi Sırrı (The Bektashi Secret) .

In the year 1931 we can find the articles of Ziya Bey, under the name “Bektaşilik” in the magazine Yeni Gün published from january to march.The articles end with a point of view in agreement wih that often expressed by Bektashis since the Republic of Turkey abolished all dervish orders. Since the Republic, they say, has by government action accomplished what the Bektashis long stood for -abolition of the Caliphate, freedom of women from the veil and soical restraints, putting an end to the fanaticism of relious leaders- there is no longer need for the continuance of the order fithing the borders of the Republic.

We can also find a novel with the title Nur Baba written by a famoust Turkish writer who also was a Bektashi himself Yakup Kadri Karaogsmanoglu.

Then comes the book of John Kingsley Birge, The Bektashi Order of Dervishes published in 1937. Revised version available in 1994. While giving the knowledge up to here I referred mostly to his book. Birge was able to witness the living tradition at a time when the order still retained its strenghth before the abolition of the tervish orders in 1925. He first visited Turkey in 1913 and after the abolition in 1925 he continued his study in Albnia, a former part of the Ottoman Empire, where the abolition did not apply and the head of the Order, the Dedebaba (at that time Dedebaba was Salih Niyazi Dedebaba died in Albania in 1941) moved to Albania and stayed there till his death but continued his service as a Chalif Baba.. (not the head of the organization but at the second link) leaving the title of Dedebaba to Ali Naci Baykal Dedebaba who stayed in Turkey but continued the organisation as a tradition rather than an open Dervish Order. After the death of Ali Naci Baykal Dedebaba on 1960, Op. Dr. Bedri Noyan Dedebaba got the title of Dedebaba from then on till his death on 1997. On 12.12. 1997 with an election among the living Chalif Baba’s Haydar Ercan was given the title of Dedebaba.

As will be seen the tradition in Turkey is carried on… But in the form of a mystic tradition of dervishes as a cultural inheritance not a legal organisation.

4 Aralık 2006 Posted by | Bektashi- Alevi, Bektaşilik ve Alevilik | Yorum bırakın